Adaptions to a physical education lesson can be made in these four key areas of a lesson:
These simple and concise components are easy to alter and can hugely increase the amount of physical activity a student in a wheelchair completes during a lesson. A student with cerebral palsy is just as capable as the other students in regards to participation levels, as long as the lesson has been adjusted correctly to ensure every student can fully participate and enjoy the lesson. (Reviews, 2013)
All students will be informed of the rules involved in softball and how our playing of the game will differ in our modified game.
Both groups begin with a dynamic warm up, focusing on increasing their heart rate and warming up and stretching the muscles in the arms, as they will be used to strike the ball with force during the game of softball.
The warm up will consist of a game of possession, in which the players pass the tennis ball to each other’s team mates using underhand rolls and overhead throws. Once a team has successfully completed 5 passes they receive a point and the other team receive possession
The drill will consist of catching and throwing practice, in which each team lines up behind each other and face the other team. One team throws the tennis ball in the air or roll it along the ground and the player on the other team have to catch it and repeat the same exercise.
The class will conclude with a game of modified softball, which is explained in detail in the following headings.
There are eight bases on the playing field. This ensures a shorter sprint to each base so the students in wheelchairs won’t be under pressure to sprint a long distance. This adaption promotes inclusion in this game of softball as the children have a shorter distance to sprint, therefore reducing their risk of ‘being out’ if the ball is touched to their base before they reach it, (Inc, 2009).
Students are not permitted to stand in the way of the children travelling from base to base. An obstruction to the base pathway will result in the player having to fetch foul balls from play until the teams switch from in-field play to out-field play and vice versa.
This is the first time any of the students have played softball before, so the students will be playing using modified equipment. The modified equipment includes a bigger sized tennis ball and a large bat for striking the ball. There will also be 4 extra bases on the field which is aimed to ensure inclusion for the children in wheelchairs as there is a reduced distance to travel to each base.
If the children with cerebral palsy have restricted movement of their upper arms, they will be provided with a batting tee for the tennis ball, enabling them to strike a stationary ball and then proceed to sprint to a base, (PE central, 1996). Also, if a student has very poor hand- eye co- ordination and struggle to strike the ball effectively, they may use the batting tee if they wish. The adaption enables students with all ranges of abilities to successfully strike the ball and will most likely develop their confidence and enjoyment of the game.
The hall will be split into two playing fields and comprise of a square shape with 8 bases. The students will be split into 4 teams at random and two teams are each sent to their designated playing field.
There will be roughly 7 students on each team. One team plays out-field, where they try to catch the ball after it is struck by the in-field team, and touch the ball off the base in which the in-field player is trying to run to. All out-field players will be well spread out to avoid collisions and promote overhead throwing and underhand rolling of the ball to the other players on the pitch/ court. Furthermore, the students must be well spaced to prevent the risk of collisions and obstructions to the students travelling from base to base.
Most importantly, the aim of this lesson is to ensure that the students are active and having fun. Establish a friendly, non- competitive environment for your students, in which the focus of the lesson is not based on winning. As long as they students are physically active and enjoying the lesson, the skill sets and the knowledge of the game will follow in the lessons to come.
- Inc, B. H. (2009, September 19). Adaptive physical education: Modifications for children with physical disabilities. Retrieved April 10, 2016, from http://www.brighthubeducation.com/special-ed-physical-disabilities/49396-adaptive-physical-education-modifications-for-children/
- PE central. (1996). PE central: Adapted physical education web sites. Retrieved April 10, 2016, from http://www.pecentral.org/adapted/adaptedactivities.html
- Reviews, best essay services. (2013, November 12). 7 ways to include a student with special needs in physical education. Retrieved April 10, 2016, from Special Education, http://www.friendshipcircle.org/blog/2013/11/12/7-ways-to-include-a-student-with-special-needs-in-physical-education/
For me, the possibilities of ICT in PE are infinite. With the new curriculum for PE now being under the new subject of well-being, the curriculum is now looking at each individual student’s health and well-being, which will include assessing our students overall health and devising a plan to help improve or maintain a student’s health and well-being, not only for their time in school, but also for to provide a positive health framework for the rest of their lives.
From my research of ICT in PE, I have come across various apps that would be of great use in a PE teaching and learning context. These include ‘Snap Guide’, which provides a step by step guide in demonstrating skills progression. It also demonstrates the rules of many sports which would assist in a student’s learning. This app is only one of many apps that can be used in a PE context. In regard to the strand of health related fitness, the range of apps available to teachers is astonishing. From my search, I came across apps such as ‘Nutrition tips’, ‘Coach’s Eye’ and a cardiograph app. These apps would prove invaluable to teacher in monitoring and assessing their students overall health and well-being in school.
From my research of ICT in PE I am came across an interesting article which led me to ask myself, is ICT of any use in PE, as PE is a physically active subject? (Wolstenholme, 2013). This also led me to question, would ICT decrease the volume of physical activity in my class? As outlined by (Loveless & Ellis, 2001), ‘Effective education should always be the priority, and the technologies must remain in service of that priority.’ This article by Wolstenholme enforced this point by highlighting that if the technology is relevant to the material being taught and if the students were learning effectively from the use of technology in a PE class, then it is useful for the class. If the adverse comes into effect, then it is best to nullify the app or technology as it has no positive effects on your PE class. We as teachers need to think more critically about the use of new communication and technologies and also provide students with the knowledge and skill to do likewise. However, this change needs to begin immediately as ‘the emergence of new electronic communications potential interactivity is changing and will change forever our culture.’ This means we, as teachers, have to conform to this new media and way of teaching as the technology will soon be the basis of education within our schools. It is therefore essential that we look at ICT in a positive light as ICT will undoubtedly by guiding the education system in the years to come. Statistics from a study carried out by education.ie show a shocking number of teachers rarely use ICT in their classrooms (‘ICT in schools Inspectorate evaluation studies’, 2008). The study showed how often teachers used ICT in their subject to aid their students learning.
These shocking statistics show that a bare 7% of teachers use ICT in PE no more than twice a month. This means roughly 90% of teachers don’t use any type of ICT when teaching PE. This low statistic highlights how we must conform to technologies and use it to our advantage when teaching PE. There is a vast amount of resources out there for teachers and I believe that the use of ICT in PE could be highly beneficial to students in order to learn and maintain basic component of physical education such as the fundamental movement skills. And who knows what else technology could do for both our teaching and our students learning, as the great John Lasseter would say, ‘The art challenges the technology, and the technology inspires the art.’
- Wolstenholme, L. (2013, June 17). Using ICT to support and enhance learning in PE. Retrieved March 23, 2016, from https://classteaching.wordpress.com/2013/06/17/using-ict-to-support-and-enhance-learning-in-pe/
- NCCA. (2004). Curriculum AssessmentandICT. Retrieved from http://www.ncca.ie/uploadedfiles/ECPE/Curriculum%20AssessmentandICT.pdf
- ICT in schools Inspectorate evaluation studies. (2008). . Retrieved from https://www.education.ie/en/Publications/Inspection-Reports-Publications/Evaluation-Reports-Guidelines/ICT-in-Schools-Inspectorate-Evaluation-Studies.pdf
- Jarrod Robinson (2012, March 27). Top Apps for PE teachers – part 12 Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vFgcv3NU85E&ebc=ANyPxKr5yHKOeLQAdVzuGdpGvQxaT3vG0gawv2oQzPsuGmuXIhfHutlf5zq1XZXcnYXcqCHaontkdh8hoq6gwgLnKCdRdBNtnA
- Loveless, A., & Ellis, V. (Eds.). (2001). ICT, pedagogy, and the curriculum: Subject to change. New York: Routledge/Falmer.
The place for Creativity in Education
Education has been one of the most valued attributes in the modern world. Some of us take it for granted by skimming by academically and focusing more on our social lives. To be educated is not only a gift, but an honour. Now that I have moved on from being educated to becoming an educator, there are various new approaches that I can take in my teaching to engage and interest my classes.
Creativity might only come across to some people as drawing or painting a picture, but to tell the truth, education and art are much the same. For a teacher to plan a class, one must draw up a lesson plan using minute detail and skill. To enhance the class, teachers then have the option of painting the class with colour on order to make the class fun and interesting for their students. This can be achieved by including fun games and challenges for their students that both generate interest and test their pre- learned skills. According to Nalman (2014), ‘Creativity is the act of turning new and imaginative ideas into reality. Creativity is characterised by the ability to perceive the world in new ways, to find hidden patterns, to make connections between seemingly unrelated phenomena, and to generate solutions.’ This definition could not be more related to education as educating children uses all these resources and skills to generate engaging classes for our students in which they can learn in a fun and enjoyable environment.
In the world of today, the use of technology holds a colossal role in creating an engaging class with a younger audience. With the booming age of technology being at large at present, teachers must keep up to the mark by creating innovative classes using information and communication technologies. ‘By treating knowledge as static and unchanging, schools are misrepresenting the true character of knowledge, which is revisionary, creative, personal and pluralistic in nature’ (Schwab 1982). Ireland has evolved so much in recent years that many of the older teacher’s main source of both resources and teaching methods were paper. Thankfully, our new workforce is very much ICT based and the future of creativity in education is certainly looking bright. Traditional pedagogy involved focusing on a finality of an exam or activity on paper, but the new age of education is so much more. For example, the new age of pedagogy focuses on revision to improve the student’s work to create something new, such as PowerPoint presentations or interactive mind maps. Creativity in education is clearly broadened by the use of information technologies both in the classroom and at home to assist students to further their learning.
A very useful idea I learned from this module was to make a website for each class, where all the resources and class notes are available to students for to catch up on missed classes or for students who wish to revise the content covered on class. This invaluable source could assist children to obtain the extra help they may need to help them with homework or study and therefore further their learning. However, research has found that parents are reluctant for their children to be spending too much time on the computer as many online sites are inappropriate for their children. Parents need to be reassured that once their children’s online activity is monitored, there is no need to fear the internet. Moreover, they need to be persuaded that the use of a computer will provide their children with educational benefits (Loveless & Ellis, 2001).
Overall, we can see that creativity is the backbone of education. It influences us to use our knowledge of the curriculum and our teaching skills to generate new ideas for our classroom. This, in turn, creates a fun and exciting environment for our students and engages them further into their learning.
- Naiman, L. (2014, February 17). What is creativity?. Retrieved March 23, 2016, from Creativity and Innovation, http://www.creativityatwork.com/2014/02/17/what-is-creativity/
- Wegerif, R. (2010). Mind expanding teaching for thinking and creativity in primary education. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill International (UK).
- Loveless, A., & Ellis, V. (Eds.). (2001). ICT, pedagogy, and the curriculum: Subject to change. New York: Routledge/Falmer.